With the popularization of electric vehicles and the continuous expansion of market share, safety issues have also become one of the focuses of consumer attention. Especially the frequent occurrence of electric vehicle spontaneous combustion has attracted widespread attention and discussion in society. The occurrence of these events not only brings concerns to consumers, but also attracts the attention of car manufacturers and battery suppliers.
In general, the spontaneous combustion of electric vehicles is not an accidental event, but is caused by multiple factors. Firstly, there are production defects in the battery itself, such as unreasonable internal structure and non-standard production process. These defects may cause internal short circuits in the battery cells, leading to spontaneous combustion accidents. Secondly, external factors are also an important reason for the spontaneous combustion of electric vehicles. During the use of batteries, they may be affected by external factors such as squeezing, puncturing, etc. These factors can cause short circuits in lithium-ion batteries, leading to rapid accumulation of internal heat and triggering spontaneous combustion.
In addition to the above factors, another important factor for electric vehicle self ignition is temperature. High or low temperatures may affect the performance and safety of the battery. When the battery operates in a high-temperature environment, it can cause the internal materials of the battery to decompose, resulting in a large amount of heat and gas, leading to spontaneous combustion. In addition, batteries also generate a large amount of heat during charging and discharging, and excessive temperatures can accelerate battery aging and damage.
Cause Analysis of Thermal Runaway
As an emerging means of transportation, electric vehicles have advantages such as energy conservation and environmental protection, but their safety issues have always been a focus of attention. In recent years, the frequent occurrence of electric vehicle fires and spontaneous combustion has caused concern and concern among consumers and car manufacturers. The root cause of these accidents is the Thermal runaway of the battery.
The Thermal runaway of the battery refers to the irreversible chemical reaction inside the battery, which causes the heat to release too quickly and cannot be released in time, thus causing safety accidents such as overheating, combustion or explosion. The reasons for Thermal runaway are complex, mainly including mechanical and electrical incentives and electrochemical incentives.
Mechanical and electrical factors, including external forces such as collisions, squeezing, and punctures, can cause changes in the internal structure of the battery, leading to problems such as internal short circuits and electrolyte leakage. Electrochemical incentives include factors such as overcharging, overdischarge, fast charging, low-temperature charging, and self induced internal short circuits of the battery. When there is electrochemical runaway in the battery, the Chemical energy in the battery will be released rapidly, and the heat will surge, leading to a sudden rise in the internal temperature of the battery, which will eventually lead to combustion or explosion of the battery.
Effective Solutions to Thermal Runaway
Thermal runaway includes three processes: inducement, occurrence and spread. There are two main causes, one is lithium evolution caused by overcharging, rapid aging of batteries, and low-temperature charging, and the other is internal short circuits caused by various reasons. At present, in view of the progress of Thermal runaway control, the best way given by experts is to “do a good job from the source”, strengthen and attach importance to the selection of battery cells and quality control. Although battery technology continues to develop, the instability of battery quality and the immaturity of technology are still one of the main reasons for the frequent occurrence of electric vehicle spontaneous combustion accidents. The quality problem of the battery will not only shorten the battery life, but also increase the risk of Thermal runaway of the battery, which will lead to safety accidents. Especially among many new battery manufacturers, there is a mixed bag of fish and dragon, with significant technological differences, exacerbating battery quality issues.
In order to improve battery quality, it is necessary to strengthen the production and quality control of batteries. During the battery production process, it is necessary to strictly control various process parameters to ensure the rationality and effectiveness of the battery’s materials, structure, and manufacturing. At the same time, it is also necessary to carry out battery quality inspection and safety test, conduct comprehensive inspection and assessment of various indicators of the battery, and timely find and solve potential safety hazards. A new battery material and technology have emerged, such as silicon based electrolyte, solid electrolyte and other new electrolytes have higher thermal stability, which is more difficult to cause Thermal runaway of the battery. At the same time, some advanced Battery management system and monitoring equipment have also emerged to monitor the temperature, voltage and other parameters of the battery in real time and warn the safety status of the battery in time, so as to take measures to prevent the Thermal runaway of the battery.
In short, the safety issues of electric vehicles are long-term and complex. To solve this problem, we need to start from multiple aspects, including battery design, production, and use, in order to improve the safety performance of the battery. At the same time, it is also necessary to strengthen the supervision and management of electric vehicles, establish sound electric full standards and systems, and protect the safety and rights of consumers. With the continuous development of technology and the continuous improvement of the safety performance of electric vehicles, it will become one of the important aspects of sustainable development in the future.
Combustion Risk Control of Power Battery
In theory, any high voltage device with it carries the risk of leakage and electric shock, while any chemical battery carries the risk of damage or ignition after a short circuit. Reasonable strengthening of safety protection can eliminate the possibility of battery leakage or combustion. At present, the mainstream Alternative fuel vehicle enterprises have come up with effective methods to protect all aspects of battery manufacturing, installation and use.
The root cause of the power battery burning risk is that the battery Thermal runaway process is a chain Exothermic reaction. The solution is to reduce the heat release and cut off the “chain Exothermic reaction. Therefore, the coping strategy is to reduce the heat release of internal chemical reaction, increase the temperature of chemical reaction, reduce the rate of battery temperature rise, enhance the external heat dissipation of the battery and other measures. By changing the path of chain heat release, the battery can be safer.
In addition, improving the temperature control capability of the battery is also crucial. The battery will release heat during operation. If the heat cannot be discharged in time, the battery temperature will rise, which will lead to Thermal runaway of the battery. Therefore, improving the temperature control capability of the battery can not only prevent the battery from Thermal runaway, but also extend the battery life.
To ensure the safety of new energy vehicles, relevant departments and industries need to take a series of measures. Firstly, the quality supervision of electric vehicle power batteries should be strengthened to ensure that the quality of power batteries meets standards and requirements. Secondly, a comprehensive electric vehicle safety monitoring and warning mechanism should be established to promptly identify and solve potential safety hazards, and improve vehicle safety. In addition, it is also necessary to improve relevant laws and regulations, clarify the responsibilities of various aspects such as the production, sales, and use of electric vehicles, and protect the legitimate rights and interests of consumers. In addition, the new energy vehicle industry should also focus on technological innovation, increase the research and development of key technologies such as Battery management system and battery materials, and improve the safety performance of new energy vehicles.
In short, new energy vehicles are the future development trend and an important component of environmental protection. Although there are risks, through various means, women can continuously contribute more to the cause of environmental protection.