Every Lithium-ion battery developed is needed to fulfill specific requirements called criteria for battery testing, which clarifies its action regarding safe use. The lithium-ion security evaluations criteria are designed for analyzing lithium-ion batteries in the developmental phase to make sure it matches the worldwide safety requirements. These criteria for diagnosing lithium-ion batteries are internationally recognized for it being made by reputable international organizations like the Underwriters Laboratories (UL). The UL 2580 standard tests nickel lithium ion-molecule batteries and lithium ion-molecule polymer batteries in new energy vehicles. It combines battery modules and battery packs. The UL 2580 standard also tests the limits of batteries, battery modules, and battery packs to defy inhumane conditions securely, analyzing whether they may be billed and delivered as necessary. In this article, we will discuss how the UL 2580 tests are performed with the test chambers.
Large Current Battery Short Circuit Test
This test is to be run on fully charged samples to ascertain their capacity to withstand an external circuit short circuit. Large current short circuit test chambers are required for this test. Exception: Short circuit testing onto a subassembly could be run rather than the whole EESA (Electrical Energy Storage Assembly).
The sample will be short-circuited by joining the negative and positive terminals of this sample using a circuit loading using a total circuit resistance than or equal to 20 mΩ. Testing is replicated at a load that draws a maximum present no less than 15 percent under this brief circuit protection performance. The samples would be to achieve equilibrium temperature until the terminals are linked. Throughout the evaluation, samples provided with protective devices shall be exposed to one element fault employing any single fault condition which might be determined to happen during discharge requirements. A spark ignition supply as outlined will be utilized to discover the presence of flammable concentrations of gases inside the sample.
In the conclusion of this test, after warming to near ambient, the trials will be exposed to the ″as obtained ″ isolation resistance test. According to UL 2580 battery test standard, there will be no signs of explosion or fire. Also, vapors will not vent outside to the electrical energy storage meeting except through designated ventilation openings or systems. There will not be a rupture of the enclosure or observable signs of electrolyte leakage outside of the test chamber. When the DUT remains operational after the short circuit test, it will be exposed to a charge and discharge cycle in compliance with the manufacturer’s specification.
Battery Crush Test
This crush test for the battery is conducted on a fully charged electrical energy storage meeting to ascertain its capacity to withstand a crash that could happen during a vehicle crash. Crush test chambers are required for this test. A sample shall be crushed between a predetermined surface along with a ribbed test platen about the text described from the Electric Vehicle Battery Abuse Testing and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Rechargeable Energy Storage System (RESS) Safety and Abuse Testing UL 2580 Standard.
- Exception No. 01: Packs with 3 axes of symmetry are exposed to 3 mutually perpendicular media directions. An individual sample of the DUT could be utilized for every single crush.
- Exception No. 2: EESAs with just two axes of symmetry, for example, cylindrical designs, are exposed to two mutually perpendicular media directions.
- Exception No. 3: The DUT could be set up in a protective frame representative of what’s supplied in the automobile.
A spark ignition origin will be utilized to discover flammable concentrations of gases inside the sample. The samples under test will pass the UL 2580 test if they will not explode or catch fire. There will be no poisonous gas release as described.
Battery Cell Crush Test (Vertical)
Throughout the extrusion evaluation, the device is used for analyzing the security performance during the extrusion/crushing/squeezing test. Battery crush test chambers (vertical) are used for single-cell crush tests such as- cylinder, pouch, prismatic cell. According to UL 2580 battery test, standard crush tools must be semi-cylindrical or hemispherical. Following testing, the battery shouldn’t catch smoke, fire, or burst. It’s also a vital testing apparatus for every battery manufacturer.
The cable is enclosed with an alloy fire-proof cover, which can be found to protect against fire during the testing procedure. A lighting system was made to observe the internal testing procedure. The interior chamber substances are combustible immunity materials. Crush force controllable within an array from 10 Tons, fulfills different criteria. The more time could be put, the accuracy is greater, and also the maximum force could be displayed right. Be armed with all the exhaust air compressor (it is suitable for clients to release the odor generated from the battery test to the exterior. The Control system uses an independent control cupboard & split with the test chamber with space 1-2 meter, which can cut the noise and enhance security and effortless operation—Double-layer explosion-proof glass window along with the explosion-proof chamber.
The extrusion pressure comes in the hydraulic pressure head together with the diameter of this 32mm piston. Following the test, the battery has been firmly clamped, begins to employ the squeezing force until the strain gauge reading reaches 2500(17.2Mpa). It will soon be abruptly released while the pressure under the 2 plates hits 3000 lb.
The cylindrical battery cell needs to lean around its longitudinal axis 90 degrees setting, in order to create the broad and narrow side that can endure the squeeze pressure. Every battery sample is exposed to pressure in one direction. Various samples should be utilized in every test.