Currently, new energy vehicles use lithium batteries as power batteries. However, the price of lithium batteries is very expensive, which is nothing compared to the well-known lead-acid batteries. The lead-acid battery is a kind of battery whose electrodes are mainly made of lead and its oxides, and the electrolyte is a sulfuric acid solution. It has the advantages of low price, stable voltage, and easy repair, and has become the power of electric bicycles, scooters, and other vehicles. The first choice for batteries is also the main force of car starter batteries. New energy vehicle power batteries choose lithium batteries instead of lead-acid batteries because lithium batteries are more suitable as power batteries than lead-acid batteries. Even if the price is higher, the use effect is better.
Lithium battery has a high energy density
As the space of a new energy vehicle is limited, its battery capacity is mainly controlled by the battery energy density. As a means of transportation, the driving range of new energy vehicles is very important. If there is no sufficient battery capacity to support, new energy vehicles cannot achieve a high driving range. At present, the energy density of lithium batteries can basically reach 200~260wh/g, and the highest has even exceeded 300wh/g, while the energy density of lead-acid batteries is only generally 50~70wh/g. If new energy vehicles choose lead-acid batteries as power batteries, the driving range will be only about one-third of the current range, which is not competitive at all.
The lithium battery is lighter
Lead-acid batteries contain a large amount of lead and sulfuric acid. The density of lead is 11.3437g/cm3 and the density of sulfuric acid is 1.8305g/cm3; while the density of lithium, the main constituent of lithium batteries, is only 0.534g/cm3. Therefore, even if other components are included, the weight of a lithium battery with the same volume is only about one-third of that of a lead-acid battery. If new energy vehicles choose lead-acid batteries as power batteries, it will increase the quality of the equipment a lot, thereby increasing the energy consumption of the whole vehicle, increasing the wear and tear of various parts of the vehicle, shortening the service life of the vehicle and shortening the driving range.
The charging and discharging rate of lithium battery is large
Lead-acid batteries do not support high-rate charging and discharging, so it does not support DC fast charging, nor does it support high-speed motors. If lead-acid batteries are used as power batteries for new energy vehicles, the maximum speed of the vehicle is estimated to be unable to exceed 100 kilometers, and the climbing ability and acceleration performance will also drop a lot.
The lithium battery has a long service life
The number of charging cycles of lithium batteries can reach 800-2000 times, while lead-acid batteries only have 300 times. Using lithium batteries as power batteries can effectively reduce the number of battery replacements in the life cycle of new energy vehicles. Overall, the battery costs are lower.
The lithium battery has no memory effect, and will not reduce the battery capacity and shorten the driving range due to improper use
Therefore, although the price of lithium batteries is higher, its advantages determine that it is more suitable as a power battery for new energy vehicles than lead-acid batteries. Therefore, the safety testing of lithium batteries is very important in the electric vehicle industry.
Only by guaranteeing the safety of lithium batteries can the personal safety of our new energy vehicles be guaranteed during driving.