Battery testing is an important part of ensuring battery safety and reliability. Because the battery itself has certain risks (such as short circuit, leakage, leakage corrosion, etc.), the detection process also hides various safety risks. In the inspection process, large-scale mechanical auxiliary equipment, high-current charging and discharging systems, and simulation experiments of extreme environmental conditions are often required. It is worthwhile to conduct in-depth research to ensure the safety of the battery testing laboratory and to ensure the personal safety of the laboratory personnel and the property safety of the equipment.
Classification of Battery Testing Items
Battery testing items can be generally divided into four categories:
- appearance inspection;
Appearance inspection includes appearance, polarity, dimensions and quality, ect.
- Electrical performance testing;
Electrical performance testing includes room temperature discharge capacity, room temperature rate discharge capacity, charge retention and capacity recovery capability, storage and cycle life, etc.
- Environmental adaptive performance testing
Environmental adaptability testing includes high and low temperature discharge capacity, high altitude simulation, constant temperature humidity, vibration resistance and salt spray, ect.
- Safety testing
Safety performance tests include mechanical shock, drop, needling, crushing, collision, thermal shock, temperature cycling, external fire, water immersion, overcharge, overdischarge, external short circuit, and thermal abuse, ect.
The above test items can also be divided into three type tests are as follows:
- Normal use tests
Normal use tests include high altitude simulation, temperature cycling, vibration and low rate charging.
- Foreseeable misuse tests
Foreseeable misuse tests include external short circuit, heavy impact, mechanical shock, drop, forced discharge, abnormal charging, improper installation, overdischarge, overcharge, and high rate charging.
- Abuse tests
The latter two types of tests are more dangerous than the normal use test.
Potential Danger of Battery Testing
Once the battery is used or is not properly stored, there is a danger of burning or explosion. In addition, there are certain security risks in the use of the testing equipment.
Battery fire explosion is usually caused by external factors such as needle sticking, extrusion, overcharging, high temperature and short circuit, causing internal short circuit or external short circuit of the battery, causing chemical reaction between the electrode material and the electrolyte. Such as the decomposition of the solid electrolyte phase interface (SEI) membrane, the oxidation, reduction of the organic electrolyte, and the decomposition of the positive electrode. The oxygen generated by the decomposition of the positive electrode is further reacted with an organic electrolytic solution or the like.
If a large amount of heat generated by these reactions cannot be lost to the surrounding environment in time, it will inevitably lead to thermal runaway, which eventually leads to burning and explosion of the battery.
Leakage & Leaking
Lead-acid batteries use dilute sulfuric acid as the electrolyte and are corrosive. During the detection process, if the battery casing is broken and the electrolyte leaks, it will bring greater danger to personnel and equipment.
Lithium-ion batteries use organic electrolytes, such as gas emissions during the safety test, odor irritating and containing toxic substances.
Tests such as mechanical shock, heavy impact, vibration, collision and drop are prone to loosening of the clamp, causing the battery to fly out and causing damage to personnel. In addition, the above-mentioned mechanical equipment operation itself has certain dangers.
The electrical property testing items such as capacity and cycle life require long-term continuous operation of the equipment and have certain safety hazards. In addition, during the battery connection process, there is a possibility that the battery is reversed or short-circuited.
Safety Protection Requirements and Measures
Protection of personnel is a top priority. The inspector is in direct contact with the sample and equipment and is the implementer of the safety protection. It is also the object of safety protection. Take all possible measures to ensure the safety of personnel. Minimize contact, and don’t touch if you can’t touch it.
Personnel training should be strengthened to improve safety awareness and ability. It is necessary to equip the protective gear. It is strictly forbidden to wear protective gear to carry out dangerous or dangerous project inspection. The monitoring area and the test area should be properly separated, using remotely controlled equipment whenever possible.
The protection of the sample is mainly during storage. Keep the environment dry and the temperature is stable and moderate. Insulate the electrodes to prevent accidental short circuits. Regular inspections should be conducted to find that hidden dangers are immediately excluded. It is necessary to properly classify the isolation to prevent mutual influence.
On the one hand, make sure that the device is functioning properly. On the other hand, it is necessary to prevent unexpected events from affecting the device. Inspection and maintenance should be strengthened. For charging and discharging testing equipment, dust should be removed regularly. For mechanical equipment such as vibrating table and impact table, it is necessary to regularly remove dust and lubricate. Regularly check that the alarm function is normal. Safety equipment such as protective nets should be installed. For equipment that has been deactivated for a long time, it is necessary to cut off water and power off.
In the event of an abnormal condition in a closed test environment (eg environmental test chamber), the test shall be discontinued. After obtaining evidence (such as taking pictures of smoke and fire), it should be effectively extinguished and exhausted through a dedicated exhaust passage of the tank. The test room should be installed with smoke, equipped with fire-fighting facilities such as fire extinguishers, sandboxes and fire hydrants. The discarded batteries after the evidence collection shall be disposed of in a harmless manner according to the instructions of the sample supplier and the relevant specifications of the laboratory, or submitted to a professional organization for reasonable disposal according to relevant regulations and procedures.
The security protection of the laboratory can be started from both management and hardware facilities. With the continuous development of battery detection technology, the continuous improvement of laboratory management regulations and the continuous improvement of the safety of the battery itself, the safety factor of the battery testing laboratory will continue to increase.
The safety of the battery test equipment hardware facilities is the top priority of laboratory safety. Our environmental test chamber and battery test equipment are equipped with good safety facilities. For example: Automatic explosion-proof pressure relief device, explosion-proof chain, tri-color light alarm device, remote control, smoke exhaust device, fire extinguishing device, etc.
Last but not least, we are a manufacturer of battery testing equipment and environmental test chamber with 14 years of production and R&D experience. If you need battery testing equipment or environmental test chamber, please contact us!